The Petroleum Industry Act (PIA)

The Petroleum Industry Act (PIA)

Nigeria’s Petroleum Industry Act (PIA) 2021, which was recently signed into law, is one of the most audacious attempts to overhaul the petroleum sector in Nigeria.


The Act seeks to provide legal, governance, regulatory and fiscal framework for the Nigerian Petroleum Industry. Despite being a major source of revenue, the oil sector lags other sectors in terms of GDP contribution. If implemented diligently, the PIA will help facilitate Nigeria’s economic development by attracting and creating investment opportunities for local and international investors.

Nigeria is Africa’s largest market, with a young, growing and vibrant population. The population is forecast to grow by an average of 2.6% per annum (World Bank, 2020). This population growth is expected to fuel greater energy demand.

The PIA will have a wide ranging impact and will redefine the Nigerian oil and gas landscape.

If properly and vigorously implemented, the PIA can represent the gold standard of natural resource management, with clear and separate roles for the subsectors of the industry; the existence of a commercially-oriented and profit-driven national petroleum company; the codification of transparency, good governance, and accountability in the administration of the petroleum resources of Nigeria; the economic and social development of host communities; environmental remediation; and a business environment conducive for oil and gas operations to thrive in the country. However, these results are conditional on Nigeria’s political and oil industry leaders overcoming some key challenges that are discussed following the summary of the key provisions of the act.

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